Cachoeira , is an inland town of Bahia, Brazil, on the Paraguaçu River. The town exports sugar, cotton and tobacco and is a thriving commercial and industrial centre.
First settled by the Indians, it was later settled by the Portuguese families of Dias Adorno and Rodrigues Martins. It became known as Nossa Senhora do Rosário in 1674. It was a strategic area and was linked with the mining city of Salvador, the former colonial capital. It became a parish on December 27, 1693. It also became Vila de Nossa Senhora do Rosário do Porto da Cachoeira do Paraguaçu in 1698.
Sugar cane farming, gold mining on rio das Contas, increased traffic on royal streets, and navigation on the Rio Paraguaçu combined to boost the regional economy in the beginning of the 18th century. In the beginning of 1800, the Cachoeirense society became very important politically. It actively participated in the war of the Independence of Bahia.
The town became a city under the imperial decree of March 13, 1873 .
Cachoeira is considered a national monument of the Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico Artístico e Nacional (IPHAN)
It is currently undergoing a bit of a tourist revival, and is a centre of candomblé.